This study was conducted on genome-editing methodologies that used new protospacer adjacent motifs (“PAM”). The CRISPR-Cas9 system is an adaptive immune system found in bacteria and archaea that is used to edit the genomes of various organisms, including human cells. However, applications of CRISPR-Cas9 are often limited due to the lack of PAM in target DNA, insufficient on-target activation, and the activation of off-target effects. As such, the technology in this study modified the target nucleic acids of cell genomes with the goal of expanding areas in which CRISPR-Cas9 can be used.
When observing the methodologies that modify the target nucleic acids in the genomes of cells that use new PAM sequences and those cells that have modified target nucleic acids in their genomes as a result of these methodologies, it was possible to conduct genome editing in certain locations where it was impossible using previously designated targets. As a result, new genome-editing applications were demonstrated to be possible. The market for gene scissors has been growing rapidly, especially for the third-generation gene scissor technology, CRISPR, whose market value is expected to increase to USD 2.3 billion by 2022, a CAGR of 36.2%.